In a brief statement on its official microblog, the Supreme People's Procuratorate said it had begun legal proceedings against him for "the crime of sheltering others to take drugs". It did not elaborate.
President Xi Jinping said in June that China would "harshly crack down" on narcotics, state media reported.
Action and comedy star Jackie Chan, 60, served as a goodwill spokesman for the China National Anti-Drug Committee in 2009, state media reported, promoting anti-drug education.
Jaycee Chan was not available for comment. In August, his father offered the public a "deep bow of apology" for his son's arrest.
China has detained a string of other mostly B-list celebrities in recent months on drug-related charges, cases that have been publicized widely in both state and social media. They have included movie and television stars, film directors and a prominent screenwriter.
Drug crimes carry harsh penalties in China including death or life imprisonment in serious cases.
Illegal drugs, especially synthetic substances like methamphetamine, ketamine and ecstasy, have grown in popularity in China in tandem with the rise of a new urban class with greater disposable income.